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1.What are the most common causes of infertility?

Some of the most common causes of infertility are as follows

  • Tubal Blocks
  • Menstruation & Ovulatory problems
  • Male associated infertility
  • Age factor
  • Uterine problems
  • Previous tubal ligations
  • Previous Vasectomy

Fertility treatments increase the likelihood of pregnancy of infertile couple looking to start their family. Treatments can include lifestyle changes, medication or assisted reproduction. There are several treatments under assisted reproduction such as IVF, IUI, ICSI, Embryo donation and more.

The time for taking the injections depends on In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF) protocol, it varies from every patient. Mostly patients receive injections for 7 to 10 days but some may require it for a little longer.

Non-ammonia hair color is supposed to be safe but can be avoided if not urgent. Henna is safe. Tattooing can be done before embryo transfer, better to avoid thereafter. Bleaching creams are to be avoided as are ointments for pimple and acne. Waxing is fine and permitted.

We know that 50% of infertility is due to male factor. A simple semen analysis for your husband would be the first test. Subsequently, we could run routine hematological investigations for you followed by a trans-vaginal ultrasound, a hysterosalpingography and hysteroscopy. Once we have run through the above investigations, we would be in a position to suggest remedial measures.

Even a normal fertile male sperm count can vary considerably from week to week. Sperm count and motility can be affected by many factors, including time between ejaculation, illness and medications. There are other factors which affect the sperm count as well, all of which we do not understand.

There is no correlation between male fertility and virility. Men with totally normal sex drives may have no sperms at all.

Semen consists mainly of seminal fluid, secreted by the seminal vesicles and the prostate. The volume and consistency of the semen is not related to its fertility potential, which depends upon the sperm count. This can be assessed by microscopic examination.

Male Infertility

Approximately 15 percent of couples are infertile. This means they aren't able to conceive a child even though they've had frequent, unprotected sexual intercourse for a year or longer. In about half of these couples, male infertility plays a role.

Sperm are produced, stored, and delivered by the male reproductive system. The male reproductive system includes the testes, urethra, vas deferens, prostate gland, seminal vesicle, and penis. The testes contain coiled structures called seminiferous tubules, which are the sites of sperm production.

Female Infertility

When to seek help of a IVT or Infertility Specialists depends, in part, on your age.

  • If you're in your early 30s or younger, most doctors recommend trying to get pregnant for at least a year before having any testing or treatment
  • If you're between 35 and 40, discuss your concerns with your doctor after six months of trying.
  • If you're older than 40, your doctor may want to begin testing or treatment right away.

More and more women are waiting until their 30s and 40s to have children. So age is an increasingly common cause of fertility problems. About one-third of couples in which the woman is over 35 have fertility problems. Many things can affect a woman's ability to have a baby. These include:

  • Age
  • Stress
  • Poor diet
  • Athletic training
  • Being overweight or underweight
  • Tobacco smoking
  • Alcohol
  • Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
  • Health problems that cause hormonal changes

More and more women are waiting until their 30s and 40s to have children. So age is an increasingly common cause of fertility problems. About one-third of couples in which the woman is over 35 have fertility problems.

  • The ability of a woman's ovaries to release eggs ready for fertilization declines with age.
  • The health of a woman's eggs declines with age.
  • As a woman ages she is more likely to have health problems that can interfere with fertility.
  • As a women ages, her risk of having a miscarriage increases.

A woman's most fertile time is during ovulation. Ovulation typically occurs within day 11 through day 21 of a woman’s cycle. Counting from the first day of a woman’s last period, day 1 is the first day a woman starts bleeding, and the 11th day is most likely the earliest day a woman will ovulate. The 21st day is most likely the last. A woman’s period comes between the 28th and 32nd day of the cycle. This pattern may differ slightly with each woman depending on a variety of factors.

A woman's most fertile time is during ovulation. Ovulation typically occurs within day 11 through day 21 of a woman’s cycle. Infertility is a medical condition that is found in both men and women, and men and women are affected almost equally.

With men, declining sperm counts, testicular abnormalities, and decreased reach of climax are common causes of infertility. Shop Products to Help Increase Sperm Count With women, the most common causes are tubal blockage, endometriosis, PCOS, and advanced maternal age which affects egg quality/quantity.

In-vitro Fertilization

IVF was developed for females with blocked Fallopian Tubes. IVF treatment is also advised in other conditions such as endometriosis, male infertility or in cases in which no exact cause for infertility is observed. If you require IVF procedure, doctors at Yash IVF go through your medical history and help you through the treatment.

Several medications are provided to the patients undergoing IVF cycle

To stimulate the ovaries, doctor might inject the patient with a medicine which contains a follicle-stimulating hormone, a luteinizing hormone or a mix of both. These medicines are given to stimulate more than one egg to develop at a time. Usually 5 to 15 eggs are required for IVF success. This ensures there is enough number of embryos for transfer.

Medicines which allow the eggs to mature. Doctors may provide medications to prevent early release of eggs. It is important that the eggs do not release before it can be retrieved from the ovaries.

At the time of embryo transfer, the patient may be recommended to take progesterone medicines to make the lining of uterus more responsive to implantation.


The IUI procedure works by concentrating the healthiest sperm. This sperm is washed and then placed into the uterus to increase the chances of egg fertilization.

In IUI, higher success rates are achieved with sperm counts in the range of 15 million/ml

Embryo Donation

The success rate of embryo transfer procedure depends on following factors

  • The quality and survival of the frozen embryo
  • The age of the patient who produced the eggs
  • The uterus of the woman receiving the embryos

The embryo implantation is done on the basis of age and the number of eggs. In young patients for the first cycle, two or three embryos are introduced. In case of elder women, 3 embryos are implanted. At Yash IVF we follow specific guidelines to avoid multiple pregnancies.

Usually embryo transfer is a painless procedure. If the patient is nervous sedatives are given to ease the cramp that might occur during the procedure.

You can go back to your daily routine, but avoid intense activity which may cause discomfort because your ovaries may still be enlarged.

Typical side effects of embryo transfer procedure are as follows

  • Constipation
  • Mild bloating
  • Mild cramps
  • Tender breast because of high estrogen level
  • If moderate or severe pain occurs after the embryo transfer, contact your doctor

After your embryo transfer, we ask that you refrain from intercourse until your pregnancy test, which is about two weeks later.

If you are pregnant, as long as you are not experiencing bleeding or discomfort, intercourse is okay after we are able to detect the baby’s heartbeat. This will be approximately two weeks after your positive pregnancy test.


A woman who accepts to carry the child of another woman who is incapable of conceiving is called a gestational carrier. Females who need gestational carriers include those who have an abnormal uterine cavity, have faced several miscarriages or recurrent failed IVF cycles. “Gestational Carrier” is also known as surrogate mother.

Our success rate for IVF treatment is on par with leading IVF centers across the world. We provide comprehensive diagnostic testing and infertility treatments. Our specialists with their expertise are capable of treating infertile couples with outstanding satisfaction level.

Most IVF treatment cycles require 8-10 visits to the clinic for blood work and ultrasound starting on day 2-4 of your cycle. This may be every day, every other day or as requested by our doctors.

The pregnancy test is done 12 days following your embryo transfer or insemination. Some patients may choose to take this time off from work, especially if they’ve had an embryo transfer.

We recommend minimizing stress and keeping a positive outlook during this time.

Normally 3-4 days of restricted activity is advised after embryo transfer, but not complete bed rest. However, you can resume work the next day if there is not too much travel and physical stress involved in your work pattern. Most available research suggests that resting does not help the pregnancy outcome so there is no advantage of staying at home and discontinuing office and work after the procedure.

All modes of transport are fine as long as you avoid bumpy drives, potholes and auto rickshaws. Train and car are equally safe for all Mumbai patients, also for patients returning to their hometown in Gujarat or Maharashtra. It is also safe to catch a flight on the same day as the embryo transfer but if you wish you could rest for a night and fly the next day. Yes, you can also sit in the back seat of a two-wheeler without any problems.

It is preferred if you climb the stairs slowly and without exerting yourself.

You can sleep in any position that you are comfortable in, even on the stomach if you want to. External pressure does not harm the uterus as it is protected by pelvic structure.

You can do moderate exercise during the treatment cycle until the day of the egg retrieval. Thereafter it is better to avoid any vigorous exercise, gym, cardio and brisk walks. Also, strenuous yogasans are to be avoided after embryo transfer. A 20-30 minute casual stroll is permitted 4 days after embryo transfer. Also, avoid pranayama which is associated with rapid changes in abdominal pressure after embryo transfer.

It is best not to mix other therapy with the medications that are provided to you, because there may be adverse effects of such combinations.

The cost of surrogacy depends on the total of the fees. For bifurcation of fees and charges in a surrogacy agreement, you will have to visit the clinic. It is difficult to give an exact estimation as there may be unexpected expenses for twin pregnancy.